Omsk Scientific Bulletin. Series «AviationRocket and Power Engineering» 

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OMSK SCIENTIFIC BULLETIN. SERIES «AVIATIONROCKET AND POWER ENGINEERING»
2020 OMSK SCIENTIFIC BULLETIN. SERIES «AVIATIONROCKET AND POWER ENGINEERING» 
Vol. 4, no. 4, 2020
CONTENTS POWER AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
V. L. Yusha, S. S. Busarov Method for calculating actual capacity of singlestage longstroke reciprocating compressors DOI: 10.25206/25880373202044915 The article presents a generalized method for calculating the actual performance of lowspeed longstroke air compressor stages of compression, based on determining the flow rate as a set of coefficients reflecting the influence of various factors on productivity losses. The method takes into account the design and operating features of lowspeed longstroke air compressor stages of compression and differs significantly from a similar method used to calculate highspeed stages of reciprocating compressors. Keywords: reciprocating compressor, lowspeed longstroke stage, delivery ratio, heating ratio, density ratio, experiment, temperature diagram.

9–15 
A. I. Borovkov, Yu. B. Galerkin, O. A. Solovieva, A. A. Drozdov, A. F. Rekstin, V. B. Semenovsky, P. N. Brodnev Development of mathematical model and computer program for primary design of transonic axial compressor DOI: 10.25206/258803732020441627 The mathematical model underlying the program for calculating and designing axial compressors is presented. The process of calculating the pressure loss in the elements of the axial compressor stage flow path is described. The loss coefficient consists of losses on the limiting surfaces, secondary losses and profile losses. The effect of roughness on the pressure loss is taken into account by introducing the corresponding empirical coefficient. An algorithm for calculating the blades and vanes angles of the impeller and the guide apparatus is presented by calculating the incidence angle and the lag angle of the flow. The flow lag angle is the sum of the lag angle of the flow on the profile and the lag angle due to viscous flow on the limiting surfaces. Keywords: axial compressor, impeller, return channel, flow rate, radial equilibrium, head loss.

16–27 
A. A. Drozdov, Yu. B. Galerkin, O. A. Solovyeva, K. V. Soldatova, A. A. Ucekhovscy Mathematical model of the 9th version Universal modeling method: features and results of identification DOI: 10.25206/258803732020442840 The Universal modeling method is a complex of computer programs for calculating the characteristics and optimal design of centrifugal compressors based on mathematical models of efficiency and head. Practical experience allows improving the mathematical models that underlie the Method. Determining the nonincidence inlet in a blade cascade is an important part of calculating the compressor gasdynamic characteristics. In the 8th version of the Universal modeling method, a formula is used to calculate the direction of the critical stream line, containing an empirical coefficient X. The practice of application has shown that the value of the empirical coefficient changes the amount of losses in the impeller in offdesign flow rates. A new scheme for modeling velocity diagrams is proposed. It is made for the stage operation mode corresponding to the zero incidence angle. The successful use of the model for the impeller made it possible to extend it to the vane diffuser and return channel. Several other improvements are made too. A new mathematical model is developed for calculating the flow parameters in the exit nozzles of centrifugal compressor stage. The mathematical model for calculating the flow parameters in the vaneless diffusers is modernized. The applicability boundary of the new model is expanded to a range of diffusers of low consumption stages with a relative width of up to 0,006. The resulting mathematical model is identified by the test results of two family model stages and plant tests of industrial compressors. Keywords: mathematical modelling, centrifugal compressor, vaneless diffuser, efficiency, exit nozzle, impeller.

28–40 
V. V. Karabanova, A. D. Vanyashov, V. L. Yusha The influence of blade profile shape of inlet guide vane on performance map of centrifugal compressor stage DOI: 10.25206/258803732020444148 The object of the study is a centrifugal compressor stage with an inlet guide vane. The performance map of the stage are investigated in the modes of combined regulation by changing the rotor speed and changing the swirl of the flow in front of the impeller by turning the blades of the inlet guide vane. Two variants of the design of the profile of the blades of the inlet guide vane are considered and the method of turning the blades by performance map. As a result of the study, it is found that a profile with a fixed inlet part at large swept angles has a lower loss coefficient, which contributes to an increase in the efficiency of the stage. The effect of regulation to achieve the set point in terms of pressure and flow for the reprofile stage is achieved at lower speeds. Keywords: centrifugal compressor stage, inlet guide vane, performance map, angles of attack, transonic flow, Computational Fluid Dynamics.

41–48 
A. V. Tsygankov, V. I. Lysev, A. K. Rubtsov, A. S. Shilin Optimization of heat and mass transfer processes in air conditioning systems in public buildings DOI: 10.25206/258803732020444956 Increasing the energy efficiency of air conditioning systems in public buildings and structures is an actual task. A mathematical model is proposed for determining the values of internal air temperatures and temperatures of the surfaces of enclosure in order to calculate the predicted values of heat fluxes in buildings and structures. An experimental study has been carried out showing the relevance of the proposed method. Keywords: energy efficiency, energy saving, heat and mass transfer, microclimate parameters.

49–56 
L. V. Galimova, D. Z. Bairamov Thermodynamic analysis of combined cycle plant operation as part of an energysaving system based on an absorption bromidelithium refrigerating machine DOI: 10.25206/258803732020445765 The main directions of research of the current energygenerating system, taking into account its technical limitations, are optimization and forecasting based on the analysis of its operating modes. Thermodynamic analysis involves determining the efficiency of the system based on the research of exergy efficiency and exergy losses. In this project, we propose methodic and results of exergy analysis of combined cycle gas plant operation as an object of energy production, the efficiency which is provided by cooling the outdoor air using an absorption bromidelithium refrigerating machine. Conducting exergy analysis for determination of exergy destruction allow to determine the potential for increasing the efficiency of the system. A flow graph and an incident matrix are presented. The exergy efficiency of the combined cycle gas plant under the specified conditions is 46,5 %. Based on the exergy analysis, the final diagram of the distribution of fluxes and losses of exergy of the combined cycle gas plant is presented. Keywords: combined cycle gas plant, absorption bromidelithium refrigerating machine, exergy, destruction of exergy, exergy analysis, exergy efficiency.

57–65 
C. R. Baggley, M. G. Read Investigation of a thermofluidic exchange pump in trilateral flash and organic Rankine cycles / trans. from Engl. M. A. Fedorova DOI: 10.25206/258803732020446674 It is well known that large amounts of energy loss occurs at low temperature states in a wide range of industrial processes. The recovery and reuse of this energy is at the forefront of increasing the overall efficiencies of industrial systems. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of using a ThermoFluidic Exchange (TFE) pump at low temperature conditions in both a Saturated Vapour Organic Rankine Cycle (SORC) and a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC). For some low temperature applications, TFCs have been shown to achieve higher net power output than conventional SORCs, due to their ability to extract more heat from the source fluid. This is the subject of current research as a result of advancements made in the design of positive displacement machines for operation as twophase expanders. Conventional turbines cannot be used for TFCs as they must operate in the vapour phase. One drawback of the TFC is the higher working fluid mass flow rate required. Depending on the scale of the system, this can potentially cause difficulties with pump selection. A TFE pump uses heat input to the system to increase the pressure and temperature of the working fluid, rather than the work input in a standard mechanical pump. This paper compares the net power output achievable using both mechanical and TFE pumps with SORC and TFC systems. The results suggest that the TFE pump could be a viable option for TFC systems. Keywords: thermogas lift, organic Rankine cycle, triangular cycle, adiabatic expansion, wet steam, recirculation.

66–74 
D. A. Ozherelev, V. V. Shalay Choosing optimal separator design using hierarchy analysis DOI: 10.25206/258803732020447581 The article describes the possibility of using the «Method of analysis of hierarchies» when choosing the type of separator. These calculation methods are used to determine the vector of priorities and alternatives according to specified criteria, as well as to assess the consistency of expert opinions. The task is set, alternative options and criteria for selecting a separator design are presented. A hierarchical structure is built for various designs of separators. The method of calculation for a variety of indicators that characterize the types of separation equipment is presented. Based on the results presented in accordance with the technical and economic indicators, the optimal design of the separator is determined. Keywords: gas separator, hierarchy analysis method, comparison matrix, gasliquid flow, apparatus productivity, gas pressure, separation process efficiency.

75–81 
S. Yu. Kaigorodov, A. A. Shaposhkov, I. V. Tsvetkov Method for calculating the use of nozzle hydrodiodes in design of twotube hydraulic shock absorber DOI: 10.25206/258803732020448289 The development of a method for calculating the use of nozzle hydrodiodes in the design of a twotube hydraulic shock absorber is carried out by considering such problems as the fragility and wear of movable elements (valves) in the design of a hydraulic shock absorber. The paper considers a method of calculation of the shock absorber with hydrododone (the fixed elements). The scientific novelty and task is to replace the movable hydraulic valves in the shock absorber design with nozzle hydraulic diodes, which, theoretically, will extend the service life of this unit, due to the lack of movement dynamics and wear of moving parts. Keywords: hydraulic shock absorber, valve, herodium, local resistance, diode.

82–89 
AVIATION AND ROCKETSPACE ENGINEERING
E. V. Krivonos Investigation of deformation of shell with waffle reinforcement during rolling and development of method for compensation of deviations forms DOI: 10.25206/258803732020449098 When the waffle panel of AMg6 alloy rolls into the cylindrical shell, a shape defect occurs. Manual elimination of this defect causes local irregularities on butt welded edges of the waffle shell. This leads to difficulties in the process of welding by friction welding with mixing of shells in the section of fuel tanks. It is necessary, on the basis of computer analysis and existing theories, to determine the stresses in the waffle shell that cause internal deformations that result in a general shape error, and to derive patterns under which external influence on the geometry of the mold at the time of bending is possible. The proposed campaign will make it possible to determine auxiliary technological elements for setting standard rolling equipment for defective rolling of wafer shells of missile fuel tanks with various geometric versions of reinforcements. It, in turn, will increase the efficiency of forming shells and the quality of welds when they are welded. Keywords: waffle panel, waffle shell, rolling, missile fuel tank, AMg6 alloy, friction stir welding.

90–98

Vol. 4, no. 3, 2020
CONTENTS
POWER AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
A. N. Noskov, M. Shaposhnikova Features of refrigeration screw compressor operation at ambient temperature decrease DOI: 10.25206/25880373202043914 With a decrease in ambient temperature, the heat gain on the refrigeration machine and condensation pressure decrease, which requires a decrease in cooling capacity and geometric compression ratio of the screw compressor. A condensation pressure decrease below a certain value disrupts the stable operation of throttling devices. The article describes the operation scheme of the refrigeration machine with a screw compressor and a liquid pump before the throttling devices, which allows it to work at a decreased condensation pressure. The dependences of changes in net efficiency, cooling capacity, power consumption and cooling coefficient at full and partial capacity with coregulation of cooling capacity and geometric compression ratio are given. The experimental and calculated characteristics of a screw compressor operating with R22 freon are used.
Keywords: oilflooded screw compressor, condensation temperature decrease, coregulation of cooling capacity and geometric compression ratio, liquid pump before throttling devices.

9–14

V. L. Yusha, G. I. Chernov, D. V. Rubtsov, S. L. Terentjev Heat loss recovery system of mobile compressor unit based on absorption refrigerating machine DOI: 10.25206/258803732020431519 The paper considers the heat loss recovery system of a compressor unit based on the absorptionrefrigerating machine. The calculation of energy savings for driving the compressor based on the use of the mentioned system is performed. The energy saving amount is shown to be 14,86 %. The parametric analysis is conducted of the dependence of the power consumed by the compressor on the solution pressure after the pump, the refrigerant solution concentration and mass flow rate fraction of the phlegm returned to the generator fr om the dephlegmator.
Keywords: heat loss recovery, compressor unit, absorption refrigeration machine, energy saving.

15–19

S. S. Busarov, V. L. Yusha, R. E. Kobylskiy Experimental evaluation of effectiveness of lip seal of cylinderpiston group of longstroke compressor stage DOI: 10.25206/258803732020432027 In slowmoving compressor stages the pistoncylinder seal is one of the most critical components affecting the tightness of the working chamber. In the present work, conditional clearances in the lip seal of lowspeed compressor stages are determined by the method of static blowing. A comparative assessment of the leaktightness of the pistoncylinder seal with a different number of cuffs and different wall temperatures is carried out.
Keywords: long stroke piston compressor; lip seal, conditional clearance, gas leaks, tightness of the working chamber.

20–27

A. P. Tsoy, A. V. Baranenko, A. S. Granovskiy, D. A. Tsoy, D. A. Koretskiy, R. A. Jamasheva Computer simulation of annual work cycle of combined refrigeration system using night radiative cooling DOI: 10.25206/258803732020432837 Evaluation of energy efficiency of a combined cooling system that uses night radiative cooling together with refrigerating machine with accumulation of cold without a phase transition and the supply of liquid coolant (propylene glycol) to the air cooler is performed based on the results of computer simulation. In the cooling system located in Kostanay (Kazakhstan), there are radiators (12 m^{2}) that cool the coolant at night, as well as a conventional vapor compression refrigerating machine with a reciprocating compressor. The cooling system is used to maintain air temperature at the level of 0±1 °C in a small refrigeration chamber (36 m^{3}) with a low value of heat emission from stored products and the absence of other operational heat influx. It is found that 78,8 days a year the cooling system can maintain the required temperature due to the operation of radiators without turning on the refrigerating machine. This saves 242 kWh of electricity. Thus, the combined refrigeration system provides 7,6 % reduced energy consumption, and also reduces physical deterioration of the refrigerating machine compressor for the annual cycle, which should reduce the financial costs for operating the refrigeration warehouse.
Keywords: Radiative cooling, refrigeration, free cooling, cold storage.

28–37

A. A. Serov, A. V. Tsygankov, A. Hildayati Modes of gas motion in equivalent channel of regenerative heat exchanger DOI: 10.25206/258803732020433844 The model of equivalent channels for the heat storage nozzle of a regenerative heat exchanger is considered. Differential heat transfer equations between the heat carrier flow and the surface of the equivalent channel are given. It is suggested to evaluate the efficiency of heat transfer by the coefficients of accumulation and heat recovery of ventilation flows. Criteria for calculating the heat transfer coefficient under laminar and transient modes of gas motion in an equivalent channel is given. The results of a computational study are presented, which make it possible to evaluate the effects of air velocity in the channel on the efficiency of a regenerative heat exchanger.
Keywords: regenerative heat exchanger, equivalent channel, heat transfer coefficient, criterion dependences, heat storage coefficient, turbulence.

38–44

A. Yu. Uss, A. S. Pugachuk, A. V. Chernyshev, F. G. Tukhbatullin Development of stand for visualization and experimental study of working process in vortex jet device DOI: 10.25206/258803732020434555 The work is devoted to the development of a stand for physical modeling of the workflow and visualization of gas flow in the flow cavity of a vortex jet device. Based on the literature review, a number of examples are found for visualizing the workflow in the flow cavity of a vortex jet device. The developed stand allows performing physical modeling of working processes in the flow cavity of a vortex jet device using its incomplete layout. Using similarity criteria, the developer can get the necessary workflow parameters in a real research object. The developed stand also allows us to study the distribution of gas flows in the flow cavity of a vortex jet device. The study of the gas flow process in various models of vortex jet devices using the developed stand will allow the developer to make a conclusion about the influence of geometric design parameters on the aerodynamics of the vortex chamber, as well as to study the flow of gas in the flow cavity. The stand is recommended to be used as a tool in the design methodology of vortex jet devices based on multicriteria optimization of geometric parameters of the flow cavity based on the zeroorder method (simplex method).
Keywords: vortex amplifier, optimization, swirl chamber, gas flow regulation, fluidics.

45–55

V. S. Evdokimov, G. I. Chernov, A. A. Gladenko, A. A. Isaev Experimental study of thermal pile characteristics DOI: 10.25206/258803732020435662 The article is devoted to an experimental study of the efficiency of a heat pump. The relevance of this work is due to the widespread use of thermal piles for soil stabilization in permafrost zones in order to prevent deformation and ruptures of gas and oil pipelines. The purpose of this work is to assess the impact of climatic conditions and the degree of damage to the soil heat stabilizer on its performance. An experimental study showed that with an increase in the blowing speed and a decrease in the air temperature, the heat capacity of the heat pump increases. It was also found that damage to up to 30 % of the working surface of the heat pump leads to a slight (up to 12 %) decrease in its thermal capacity.
Keywords: thermal stabilizer, climate chamber, heat capacity of the heat pump, efficiency of the heat pump.

56–62

A. A. Girchenko, A. A. Rumyantsev, A. A. Kazantsev, D. I. Bukhanets, A. V. Timoshenko, A. A. Murashev Monitoring process of developing system for providing temperature, air supply and filtration of transported control modules DOI: 10.25206/258803732020436370 The article presents an approach to formalizing the process of creating a system for providing temperature, air supply and filtration (TAFS) of transported control modules of aerospace defense complexes. The use of line graphs to control the creation of such systems has recently shown its inconsistency and requires improvement in terms of how to manage the processes of creating such systems. As a basis, it is proposed to use the dynamic theory of graphs, which allows one to take into account not only resourcetime constraints, but also possible changes in the structure of relations of sequences of work performed to create TAFS. The paper shows that the key element of managing the process of creating TAFS is a complex modeling stand, which can be used to obtain objective data on the development of system equipment. The availability of this information allows taking control on the process of creating TAFS at all stages of the life cycle using a network model. The composition and structural diagram of such a stand are given in the article.
Keywords: system for providing temperature, air supply and filtration, transportable control unit, network planning, stand, tests.

63–70

O. Yu. Manikhin, V. V. Shalay Implementation and evaluation of efficiency of gas preliminary drying system during operation of process equipment of complex gas treatment unit DOI: 10.25206/258803732020437180 In order to increase the efficiency of the absorption dehydration of the integrated gas treatment unit during peak summer operating modes, when the temperature of the dried gas significantly exceeds +25 °C, a preliminary dehydration system has been introduced into the processing flow chart. The implemented technical and technological improvements both of the internal elements of the separation equipment and the piping system of the gas dehydration shop made it possible to reduce the carryover of droplet moisture from the separation and absorption equipment, as well as to ensure compliance with the current standards for commercial gas for the key parameter dew point temperature, in compliance with the required technological reserve.
Keywords: gas absorption drying, gas preliminary drying system, triethylene glycol, dew point temperature.

71–80

K. Klotsche, F. Micus, C. Thomas, U. Hesse Waste heat recovery for reciprocating compressors / trans. from Engl. M. A. Fedorova DOI: 10.25206/258803732020438189 In many important industries (oil and gas, process gases, chemical process engineering) multistage reciprocating compressors are used, especially for high pressure ratios. The gas is compressed in multiple consecutive stages and cooled after each stage in order to reduce the maximum process temperatures. The rejected heat is often dissipated to the environment and the usable part — the exergy — is lost. The aim of this paper is to show how the waste heat potential of reciprocating compressors can be used. For this purpose, the waste heat available per stage is quantified for different compression scenarios. Based on this, the processes for the waste heat recovery suitable for the temperature range of the discharge gas as heat source are presented — in particular, the structure, working principle and characteristics of the waste heat recovery system. It is shown that the waste heat can be used flexibly for different purposes (heating, power generation, cold supply). The potential of the possible methods of waste heat recovery can be estimated with the aid of the given efficiencies of the respective energy conversion processes.
Keywords: reciprocating compressor, waste heat recovery, heating, thermoelectric generator, organic Rankine cycle, absorption refrigerator.

81–89

M. T. White, M. G. Read, A. I. Sayma Comparison between single and cascaded organic Rankine cycle systems accounting for the effects of expansion volume ratio on expander performance / trans. from Engl. M. A. Fedorova DOI: 10.25206/2588037320204390100 Compared to singlestage organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems, cascaded ORC systems, in which a hightemperature topping cycle and lowtemperature bottoming cycle are coupled together, could have advantages in terms of removing the potential for subatmospheric condensation conditions and improving expander performance as the expansion process is effectively divided across two stages. Moreover, reducing the expansion volume ratio could facilitate the use of volumetric expanders, such as twinscrew expanders, which, in turn, could facilitate twophase expansion to be utilised in one, or both, of the cycles. The aim of this paper is to compare singlestage and cascaded ORC systems, accounting for the effect of the expander volume ratio on expander performance. To investigate this, thermodynamic models for singlestage and cascaded ORC systems are developed, which include variable efficiency expander models for both radial turbines and twinscrew expanders that can estimate the effect of the expansion volume ratio on the expander isentropic efficiency. Using this model, three different scenarios are compared for different temperature heatsource temperatures, namely: (i) singlestage ORC systems with vapourphase expansion obtained using a turboexpander; (ii) singlestage ORC systems operating with a twinscrew expander, with the possibility for twophase expansion; and (iii) cascaded cycles with either vapour or twophase expansion. The results from this comparison are used to identify applications wh ere cascaded ORC systems could offer performance benefits.
Keywords: singlestage Rankine cycle, cascaded Rankine cycle, turboexpander, screw expander, isentropic efficiency.

90–100

AVIATION AND ROCKETSPACE ENGINEERING
N. V. Vologodskij, A. V. Pronevich, A. B. Yakovlev Experimental study of cyclone filters of pneumatic automatic control system of gas turbine engine for increasing degree of purification DOI: 10.25206/25880373202043101109 An experimental study of cyclone filters of various designs is conducted. The parameters that allow increasing the degree of air purification from dust are identified: air pressure at the filter inlet, working air temperature, as well as the diameter of the nozzle of the purified air consumer simulator and the diameter of the ventilation nozzle. The results obtained make it possible to increase the reliability of pneumatic units and reduce the erosive wear of their working cavities.
Keywords: aircraft engine, pneumatic systems, separation, centrifugal dust collector, cleaning degree.

101–109

Vol. 4, no. 2, 2020
CONTENTS POWER AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
A. B. Sulin, T. V. Ryabova, A. A. Nikitin Design characteristics of natural convection radiator with local heat load DOI: 10.25206/25880373202042915 The problem of optimized calculation of the geometric characteristics of a finned heatexchange surface with a local heat source under conditions of natural convection is considered. The solution was obtained for the condition of the maximum specific volumetric heat transfer power. An engineering technique is proposed for taking into account the local nature of the application of heat load. The design characteristics are given as functions of temperature head, fin height and thickness of the radiator base. Keywords: natural convection, finned radiator, local heat load, thermoelectric module.

9–15 
A. V. Zaitsev, A. A. Malyshev, K. F. Kouadio, O. S. Malinina, A. O. Lisovtsov Comprehensive twophase flow calculation method with inchannel refrigerant boiling DOI: 10.25206/258803732020421626 In this paper, the authors deal with the processes occurring during boiling of twophase flows in channels, which differ in many possible regimes, and their analytical description is possible only under strict restrictions within the given regime and the application of empirical data. An approach is proposed in which it is recommended to use a map of flow regimes (boiling) in coordinates Ж – lgFrm as an empirical component. The analysis of the process is carried out in the entire range of parameters — mass flow, temperature and pressure taking into account the change of flow regimes. The analytical dependencies presented form together a complete mathematical model, which is implemented in the form of a computer program. Keywords: twophase flows, inchannel boiling of refrigerants, true volumetric vapor content, flow regimes.

16–26 
O. S. Malinina, A. V. Baranenko Efficiency comparison of thermodynamic cycles of lithium bromidewater absorption refrigeration machines DOI: 10.25206/258803732020422736 The energy efficiency analysis of the actual thermodynamic cycles of lithium bromidewater absorption refrigeration machines (ABLRM) with single and multistage processes of absorption and generation and with associated mass flow is carried out. The temperature influence analysis of the heating and cooling sources on the heat coefficient is performed. Parameters of external sources that allow implementation of these thermodynamic cycles are determined. Meanwhile, for cycles with twostage absorption and generation processes, a heating source with temperature (20–24) °C lower in comparison with the basic singlestage cycle, and for a cycle with threestage processes–lower by (27–30) °C is required. It has been established that with the accepted parameters of external sources, the actual coefficient of performance is within the limits: for a singlestage ABLRM) it is 0,68–0,74, for a twostage ABLRM, it is 0,36–0,39 and for a threestage ABLRM, it is 0,24–0,26. Keywords: efficiency, actual thermodynamic cycle, lithium bromidewater absorption refrigeration machine (ABLRM), coupled mass flow, coefficient of performance.

27–36 
M. Mehrpooya, A. V. Zaitsev, A. O. Lisovtsov Application of new external cooling cycles in technological scheme of helium extraction and natural gas liquefaction DOI: 10.25206/258803732020423747 The paper presents the results of studying a combination of new technological solutions in the processes of natural gas liquefaction and helium extraction. The most common and effective way to ensure cooling capacity in the natural gas liquefaction process is to use a cascade cycle on mixed refrigerant (MFC) as external cooling. The influence of introducing an absorption refrigeration unit on the technological process has been studied. To extract helium, the combined separation and rectification method is used. The purity of helium obtained is 50 % (in moles). The running conditions of operation and the corresponding technical characteristics of the devices are presented and described. The curves of the resulting characteristics of heat exchangers indicate the correctness of the thermohydraulic calculations performed. The relative value of energy costs for obtaining 1 kg of liquefied natural gas in a technological process using MFC is 0,265 kWh/kg of LNG introducing an absorption refrigeration unit into the cycle reduces the ratio presented to 0,1849 kWh/kg of LNG. In the process of extracting helium using an absorption refrigeration unit gives the result of 0,951 and 132,9 kW/kmol of helium respectively. When using an absorption refrigeration unit, the helium extraction rate and power consumption ratio are 0,951 and 132,9 kW/kmol of helium, respectively. Application of the exergic analysis methods to the processes under consideration shows that the greatest value of exergic losses relative to other devices is observed in compressors. A detailed economic analysis has been carried out. It shows that the cost of the product obtained in the normal MFC cycle and in the MFC cycle using an absorption refrigeration machine is $ 0,1939 and $ 0,2069 per kg of LNG, respectively. Finally, on the basis of such economic factors as the cost of electricity and the cost of the product, the efficiency of the new cycle was analyzed. Keywords: helium recovery, liquefied natural gas, refrigeration cycle, thermal integration of processes, energy efficiency, exergy analysis.

37–47 
O. Yu. Manikhin, V. V. Shalay Process equipment analysis integrated gas treatment unit for diethylene glycol absorbent change to triethylene glycol DOI: 10.25206/258803732020424855 Based on the calculated data obtained by using the software complex of modeling of technological processes for preparation of hydrocarbon raw materials of the domestic development «GIBBS», the article confirmed the advantage of triethylene glycol relative to diethylene glycol in terms of reduction of dew point temperature of dried gas in changing thermobaric conditions of operation of technological equipment of the complex gas treatment plant. The design parameters are confirmed by experimental data obtained during operation of the natural gas drying system at the facilities of Gazprom dobycha Noyabrsk LLC, where triethylene glycol is used as an absorbent. Keywords: booster compressor station, gas absorption drying, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, dew point temperature, process modeling.

48–55 
A. D. Vanyashov, A. V. Krupnikov Applying «compressornetwork» analysis method for the system with reciprocating compressor and recirculating line DOI: 10.25206/258803732020425663 The subject of research is an opposed reciprocating compressor (RC) providing gas injection into the underground gas storage. Issues concerning implementation of compressor startup conditions to recirculating line have been considered. As a tool, the compressornetwork analysis method is used, which consists in determining the system operating points through matching characteristics of the reciprocating compressor and the network, for which in this case the recirculating line with the control valve is considered. Recommendations have been received to sel ect a control valve type for the reciprocating compressor operating in both singlestage and twostage modes. Keywords: reciprocating compressor, underground gas storage, control valve, recirculating line.

56–63 
D. S. Titov, S. S. Busarov, I. P. Aistov, K. A. Vansovich Analysis of piston seals efficiency in silent pump units using analysis of deformed state of compression chamber cylindrical part DOI: 10.25206/258803732020426471 The article discusses the application of various types of seals in piston pump with lowspeed longstroke units. The calculated values of the deformations of the cylindrical part of the working chamber and the current value of the actual clearances for various cylinderpiston seals are determined. Based on the established restrictions on the minimum value of the feed coefficient, an analysis is made of the working process of the pump piston stage of a longstroke unit and recommendations are developed on the use of the considered types of seals. Keywords: lowspeed longstroke stage, piston pump unit, piston unit balancing, cylinder deformation, clearance.

64–71 
A. V. Burakov, A. A. Levikhin, A. V. Pobelyanskiy, A. S. Perminov Adaptation of 3D printing technology and topological optimization methods for creating low flow rate turbochargers DOI: 10.25206/258803732020427284 The article describes the vast experience of the Compressor holding company in creating compressor equipment for various industries. Existing methods for the development and manufacture of turbochargers are demonstrated using an example of a nonstandard refrigeration compressor designed to operate on gaseous refrigerant R704. The data on the additive technologies mastered by leading foreign companies in the field of aviation and rocket science are analyzed for the manufacture of parts and assembly units using 3D printing with metal materials. The experience of applying topological optimization methods in aircraft and rocket science is considered. The conclusion is drawn on the applicability of topological optimization methods for creating turbocompressor elements together with 3D printing technology. A method is proposed for creating nonstandard lowconsumption turbochargers providing a reduction in material consumption and an increase in the strength of parts and assemblies, including the stages of design calculation, preliminary calculation, building a 3D model, phased topological optimization, verification of loads, verification of technology, manufacturing using 3D printing, 3D scanning to confirm compliance of the printed part specified geometric properties, verification of the part for compliance with mechanical properties. Keywords: turbocharger, 3D printing, 3D scanning, load optimization, design calculation.

72–84 
L. G. M. De Luca, E. Silva, C. J. Deschamps Assessment of simplifying hypotheses adopted for valve leakage modeling / trans. from Engl. M. A. Fedorova DOI: 10.25206/258803732020428595 The reedtype valves employed in refrigeration compressors must provide adequate sealing when closed to avoid leakage of gas between the compression chamber and the suction and discharge chambers. Recent studies show that valve leakage can considerably affect the performance of the small reciprocating compressors used for domestic refrigeration. The present paper reports an investigation on the adequacy of simplifying the hypothesis adopted in the simulation models of valve leakage. The results indicate that the transient effects related to both the valve deflection and fluid flow are negligible. Also, the ideal gas formulation was found suitable in some operating conditions found in domestic refrigeration. On the other hand, leakage was found to be overpredicted by almost 20 % when the reed valve geometry was simplified to a circular plate in order to reduce the computational processing cost. Keywords: reciprocating refrigeration compressor, valve, overflow, mathematical model, numerical experiment, verification. Printed by permission from the authors and the Centre for Compressor Technology International Conference on Compressors and their Systems (London, 2019).

85–95 
З. ^ahin, H. Kerpiззi, A. Ya. Karabay, K. Karahan Investigation of Discharge Flow and Force Coefficients in Hermetic Reciprocating Compressors / trans. from Engl. M. A. Fedorova DOI: 10.25206/2588037320204296103 Low energy consuming products are eternal target of all household appliance manufacturers. To acquire desired energy index, high efficiency variable capacity compressors have started to be used widely on refrigerators. Reed valves and valve plate designs are the most critical issues in the development of reciprocating compressors in terms of coefficient of performance (COP). The stiffness of the reed valves and the port geometries play an important role on reducing the losses at various speeds and operating conditions. In the last decade, FluidStructure Interaction (FSI) method has started to be used in order to investigate valve dynamics. Because of the complexity and high computational cost of FSI method, system simulation tools are still preferred for faster and simpler solutions. Inhouse developed simulation tool uses flow and force coefficients to calculate valve dynamics and mass flow rate. Those are calculated with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses with respect to the valve lift. In the present study, flow and force coefficients at different piston positions were investigated. Piston pin which is used to reduce dead volume was also considered as a parameter. CFD calculations were established for steady state conditions at different valve positions with Ansys Fluent. The calculated flow and force coefficients were implemented into the simulation tool and the effect of piston position was presented in terms of COP, cooling capacity and compared with the experimental results. Keywords: reciprocating refrigeration compressor, valves, pressure coefficient, flow coefficient, CFD analysis, simulation model, experiment, verification. Printed by permission from the authors and the Centre for Compressor Technology International Conference on Compressors and their Systems (London, 2019).

96–103 
I. S. Busarov, V. L. Yusha, S. S. Busarov Experimental determination of rebound coefficient of valve plate with elastomeric elements in piston lowspeed compressor stage DOI: 10.25206/25880373202042104110 Experimental studies of dynamics of the locking element of selfacting valve with elastomeric elements of slowmoving longstroke stages makes it possible for the first time to obtain a diagram of motion of the valve plate for the compressor units under consideration. The main principal result of the dynamic analysis of the valve is the absence of rebounds from the seat and the lift limiter during motion of the locking element. The data obtained in the future can be used to develop and verify the methodology for calculating such valves. Keywords: slowspeed longstroke stage, selfacting valves, valve motion diagram, experimental studies.

104–110 
AVIATION AND ROCKETSPACE ENGINEERING
A. B. Yakovlev Development of vortex compressed air drying devices for ground launch complex systems DOI: 10.25206/25880373202042111116 The possibility of using the vortex effect for drying compressed air used in various industrial installations including systems for thermostating ground launch complexes is shown. A mathematical model of the process of reducing the moisture content is presented and a method for calculating the optimal geometric dimensions of the vortex drying device is created. The results presented in this paper allow us to increase the efficiency of production processes that use compressed air as a working fluid. Keywords: launch complex, pneumatic system, Ranque effect, vortex flow, moisture content, mechanical drying.

111–116 
V. N. Klimov, D. Ya. Dudev, V. Ya. Sigaylo, N. I. Klimov Determination of temperature mode of rotary bearings of gas turbine engine with air and fuel lubrication system DOI: 10.25206/25880373202042117128 The article is devoted to the problem of choosing the optimal parameters of the airfuel mixture in gas turbine engines (GTE) with the airfuel lubrication system. Currently, determining the optimal parameters of the airfuel mixture is significantly complicated by the inability to calculate the temperature mode of the bearings. The main specific characteristics of the gas turbine engine significantly depend on the amount of air and fuel taken fr om the flow part and the fuel line of the engine. Therefore, determining the dependence of the bearing temperature on their operating conditions (parameters of the airfuel mixture and operating modes) is an urgent task. The purpose of this work is to develop a method for determining the temperature of a bearing that is lubricated and cooled by an airfuel mixture. The paper analyzes the thermal state of bearings installed in the rotor supports of a gas turbine engine with an airfuel lubrication system. On the basis of the test results of hybrid ball radial thrust bearings 45126205РЯ the dependences of the friction moment and the coefficient of convective heat transfer on the parameters of the airfuel mixture and operating modes are determined. A method for calculating the temperature of a bearing that is lubricated and cooled by an airfuel mixture has been developed. The use of the obtained results in the design of promising shortlife gas turbine engines with airfuel lubrication system will lead to improved engine performance and will contribute to expanding the scope of its application. Keywords: gas turbine engine, airfuel mixture, lubrication system, method, bearing temperature. 
117–128 
Vol. 4, no. 1, 2020
CONTENTS POWER AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
I. P. Aistov, S. S. Busarov, I. S. Busarov, A. A. Kapelyukhovskaya, A. A. Galkova Analysis of influence of piston motion law on characteristics of working process of singlestage carbon dioxide compressor unit DOI: 10.25206/25880373202041914 The results presented in the work shows that the implementation of the carbon dioxide compression process in an oilfree lowspeed stage of a reciprocating compressor with intensive external cooling can increase the refrigeration coefficient and improve the weight and size characteristics of the heat exchange and compressor equipment of vapor compression refrigeration machines. Therefore, the use of lowspeed longstroke compressor units in refrigeration units is a very promising direction of their development. In addition, the study of the issues of ensuring the required energy characteristics of singlestage compressor units with a linear hydraulic drive due to the synthesis of the linear hydraulic drive law, the piston of which is rigidly connected to the compressor stage piston using an example of such a refrigerant as CO_{2}, will improve the parameters of the refrigeration machine and further reduce the overall dimensions of the compressor unit. Keywords: refrigerants, the law of motion, linear hydraulic drive, lowspeed longstroke compressor unit, the working process of piston lowspeed longstroke stages, weight and size parameters. 
9–14 
V. L. Yusha, S. S. Busarov Determination of polytropic indicators of schematized working processes of air piston slowmoving longstroke compressor stages DOI: 10.25206/258803732020411522 Experimental studies of lowspeed longstroke compressor stages using the example of working fluid — air made it possible to determine such parameters of a schematized working process as polytropes of compression and reverse expansion. These parameters, firstly, can be used in engineering methods of calculation or firstlevel models, and secondly, they will make it possible to refine the existing methodology for calculating piston stages in terms of determining the volume factor. Based on the analysis, recommendations are given on determination of equivalent polytropes and polytropes of finite parameters. The values obtained are significantly different from those currently accepted for highspeed compressor circuits. Keywords: lowspeed longstroke stage, polytropic indicator, experimental studies, schematization of the working process, indicator diagram. 
15–22 
N. A. Raikovsky, V. L. Yusha, K. I. Kuznetsov, V. A. Korenev, V. S. Karpus Analysis of mechanical losses in the working chamber of rotary vane machines DOI: 10.25206/258803732020412332 The work is devoted to the analysis of reducing friction losses in rotary vane machines. It is established that the smallest friction loss is provided by lubricating the cylinder with water, while the values of the friction coefficient obtained by processing the results indicate the presence of the hydrodynamic lubrication regime. Unexpectedly large values of friction power losses are obtained when oil is used as a lubricant, which is primarily due to high hydromechanical losses, which, according to preliminary estimates, can reach 70 %. The analysis of the ratio «friction power/indicator power» in rotary vane compressor machines shows that the use of the water as a lubricant can significantly increase the speed of machines without a significant decrease in their energy characteristics. Increasing the speed of nonlubricated plate machines requires the search for new technical solutions and materials of friction units forming the working chamber. Keywords: rotary vane compressor, mechanical friction, lubrication, nonlubricated working chamber, power. 
23–32 
K. T. Ooi, P. Shakya A Simulation studies of a coupled vane compressor / trans. from Engl. M. A. Fedorova DOI: 10.25206/258803732020413340 In this paper, the mathematical models of the novel Coupled Vane compressor (CVC) is formulated to study its operational characteristics and to assess its performance. Coupled Vane compressor, as the name implied, has two vanes coupled together. The unique feature of the compressor is that a set of two vanes are coupled together and they cut through the rotor diametrically. Theoretically, any rotor size which can accommodate the vanes will work with this design. This design removes most of the geometrical constraints imposed on the size of the rotor, as what happened in most of the rotary compressors. The ability to accommodate a significantly small rotor in this new design, makes it substantially more compact which also indirectly reduces material wastage, cost of machining and fabrication. This new design is intended to be used in refrigeration, household cooling and heating applications. Keywords: vane compressor, rotor, coupled vanes, geometric model, thermodynamic model, vane dynamics, operating process. Printed by permission from the authors and the Centre for Compressor Technology (International Conference on Compressors and their Systems. London, 2019 ). 
33–40 
Y. S. Hu, H. J. Wei, J. Xu, P. Kwan, F. Wu, F. Y. Luo, L. P. Ren A Theoretical Study on the Novel Structure of Vane Compressor for High Efficiency / trans. from Engl. M. A. Fedorova DOI: 10.25206/258803732020414149 Aiming at the problem of excessive mechanical loss of the conventional vane compressor, this paper proposes a novel vane compressor structure. This compressor can significantly reduce the mechanical frictional loss through converting sliding friction between vane tip and cylinder into rolling friction by using a rolling bearing. The structure and operation principle are introduced in this paper, and mechanical friction loss calculation models of these two kinds of compressor are theoretically analyzed. The results show that mechanical loss of the novel vane compressor can be reduced by nearly 38 % under the same working conditions. At the same time, the actual tested results indicated that the total power consumption of compressor decreased 160,1 W (6,89 %), and the COP increased by 11,89 %. Keywords: vane compressor, rotor, rolling bearing, mechanical loss, friction power calculation, experiment, results verification. Printed by permission from the authors and the Centre for Compressor Technology (International Conference on Compressors and their Systems. London, 2019 ). 
41–49 
AVIATION AND ROCKETSPACE ENGINEERING
V. I. Trushlyakov, D. Ya. Davydovich Experimental research on the technology of manufacturing and burning of aircraft structures made of multicomponent materials DOI: 10.25206/258803732020415059 The analysis of the state of modern technologies for utilization of reinforced polymers is carried out. The task of the study was formulated. Based on thermodynamic analysis and consideration of various combinations of compositions for conducting experiments, six types of test multicomponent samples were selected for conducting experimental studies on their combustion. To determine the maximum combustion temperature, the ignition temperature of the samples, and the mass of combustion residues. The analysis of the results obtained was carried out, and the compositions of the components for further research were identified. Keywords: combustion, plastics, energy materials, separated parts of aircraft and spacecraft. 
50–59 
O. L. Prusova Methods of liquid evaporation on the basis of acousticvacuum and thermal influences (overview) DOI: 10.25206/258803732020416073 The basic effects and their combinations on evaporated liquid located on solid surface and in the form of a suspended droplet are analyzed. Methods of applying these effects for liquid evaporation under the following boundary conditions of the liquid location: «drop», «film» are considered. The classification of one, two, and threefactor effects on the evaporated liquid is proposed. The direction of further research in the field of joint application of convective, conductive and vacuum influences on the dried object is formulated. Keywords: liquid evaporation, drop, film, thermal and acousticvacuum effect, multifactor influence, classification of effects on the evaporated liquid. 
60–73 
V. I. Kuznetsov, V. V. Makarov, A. Yu. Shander, M. Yu. Agarin, I. A. Kuzmenko Energy exchange in vortex tube DOI: 10.25206/258803732020417482 The vortex tube operation is considered. The effect of separation of the peripheral and axial layers of gas at full temperature due to the exchange of work and heat between them is studied. The mechanism of kinetic energy transfer from the axis of the periphery is determined. The effect of viscosity forces and the gradient of angular velocities on the energy exchange in a vortex tube is verified. There is experimentally found dependence on the thermophysical properties of energy gas, a gas pressure value at the inlet of the vortex tube and exit valve and diaphragm geometric parameters of the main elements of the vortex tube. There is conducted research to identify the nature of the vortex effect — of the fibers of the gas temperature. The question of the development of the theory of real phenomena (Ranque effect) is considered. It is shown that the main work of the authors of this article can be regarded as the theory of the Ranque effect. Keywords: energy domain, Rank effect, viscosity, gradient of angular velocities, mechanism of energy transfer from axis to periphery. 
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